The Republic of Kazakhstan is a country straddling Europe and Asia, with the largest lake in the world, the Caspian Sea. The southern part of the Caspian Sea is the deepest, while the northern basin is very shallow in most places, with a depth of no more than about 5 metres. The main port cities are Baku (Azerbaijan), Aktau (Kazakhstan), Astara (Iran), and Astrakhan (Russia).
There are immeasurable reserves of oil and natural gas under the Caspian Sea. However it’s an exceptionally fragile ecosystem, which makes extracting that oil and gas very complex technically.